By comparing the recorded Indo-European languages, especially the most ancient ones, much of the parent language from which they are descended can be reconstructed. This reconstructed parent language is called Proto-Indo-European.
Indo-European languages are a family of languages spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of Southwest and South Asia. The Indo-European languages are the descendants of a single unrecorded language that is believed to have been spoken more than 5,000 years ago in the steppe regions north of the Black Sea and to have split into a number of dialects by the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC.
These dialects, carried by migrating tribes to Europe and Asia, developed in time into separate languages, a number of which have left written records of their various stages.
The well-attested languages of the Indo-European family fall fairly neatly into the following 10 main branches: Albanian, Anatolian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic and Tocharian.